Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located underwater, formed when magma from deep within the crust rises to the seafloor. Cooling of the magma can create hydrothermal vents, where superheated and chemical-rich water spews upward, similar to geysers on land. Despite being in areas with no light for sunlight-driven food production, vent sites often support diverse communities of animals that have adapted to produce food using chemical energy, via a process known as chemosynthesis.
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Explore fact sheets, essays, and stories from our explorers to learn more about the study of submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents.Read more
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